Glossary of Terms

A I B I C I D I E I F I G I H I I I J I K I L I M I N I O I P I Q I R I S I T I U I V I W I X I Y I Z


A

Airjet yarn - cotton and polyester garments which provide for a virtually "pill free" look, wash after wash.

Allen Solley placket - a one-piece placket that’s hidden after being sewn. This process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face. This is an upscale placket type.

Award jacket - a baseball-style jacket with contrasting striped trim.


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B

Banded self collar - a type of collar made of the same material as the shirt. The two basic kinds of this collar are the simulated, made of two pieces, or the true, made of four pieces.

Baseball shirt - a shirt style that features a crew collar, white body, and three-quarter-length raglan sleeves in a contrasting color.

Basket weave - a variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. Fabrics have a loose construction and loose appearance.

Besom pocket - reinforced top seam found on the pockets of golf shirts. This reinforced top seam keeps the pocket in shape and more durable.

Binding - a strip of material sewn or attached over or along the edge of something for protection, reinforcement or ornamentation.

Blanks - undecorated items or apparel; also refers to "blank" goods.

Breeze knit - garment-washed cool knit. By garment washing, the cool knit gets a softer hand and reduced shrinkage.

Brim - a sun screen that goes all the way around a hat. An example would be a tennis hat.

Broadcloth - a close plain-weave fabric made of cotton, rayon or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester.

Buckram backing - stiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. Also used to stabilize embroidery edges.


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C

Calendaring - essentially an ironing process that adds sheen to the fabric by the use of heavy rollers (or calendars), pressure and steam heat.

Chambray - a plain weave fabric, usually of cotton or rayon, or a blend of these.

Clean-finished placket - typically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. By cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, turning the edges under and fusing them in place, there is a straight placket with no raw edges. All that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.

Coach's jacket - style of jacket, comparable to a basic windbreaker, with fold-over collar and slash pockets.

Color blocking - merchandising and/or cutting term whereby a certain type or block of colors ends up in the same place every time on the finished garment.

Combed cotton - cotton yarn that has been combed to remove short fibers and to straighten or arrange longer fibers in parallel order.

Combing - a secondary cleansing process performed to remove additional impurities from the staple fibers after carding. This is a better, more refined cotton than carding.

Compacting - process that compacts the space between fabric fiber pockets. This will prevent cotton shrinkage. Comprehension straps - straps which securely hold the inner contents of a bag.

Constructed - a constructed cap has buckram backing.

Cool knit - a variation of pique that results in a different texture and surface appearance. It resembles a "waffle" pattern.

Cotton sheeting - plain-weave cotton fabric, usually prelaundered, used for fashion sportswear. It's wrinkled to create crinkle cotton.

Crew collar - a rounded, ribbed collar cut loose to the neck.

Crinkle cotton - wrinkled or puckered cotton obtained by cloth, construction or finishing. It is prelaundered and made from cotton finishing.

Crop top - a shirt style made to expose the midriff.

Cross cut - fabric knit on a pique machine, which is altered slightly to provide a unique stitch. The face of the fabric is two-toned, which gives it a dimensional, textured look and feel. The garment stitching will have a horizontal appearance rather than a vertical one.

Cross grain - this term is used for heavyweight fleece fabric. The fabric is sewn between ribs or panels on the side part of the garment for extra thickness and durability.

Crown - the upper-most part of the cap of a hat that is sewn to either a hatband, brim or sweat band.


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D

Denier - 600 vertical threads and 600 horizontal threads that help make a garment more durable and stronger.

Denim - a basic or cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill constructions. The wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing.

Double-needle - a double row of stitching at the seam.

Draw cord - a cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing and pulled to tighten or close an opening or drawstring.

Drop seam - a seam that is cut and lays below the shoulder of the garment.

Drop tail - a design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front, sometimes referred to as an "elongated" back.


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E

End on end - a weave in which the warp yarn (the yarn running lengthwise) alternates between two colors.

Enzyme wash - washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed. The solution physically degrades the surface of the cotton fiber. The appearance and hand of the garment are identical to stonewashed and acid washed garments. However, the fabric surface is not damaged to the extent of a stonewashed or acid washed garment.


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F

Fabric memory - a term used for cotton fabric. When washing instructions are followed, it will always come back looking as if it were brand new.

Face yarn - the exterior yarn of a fleece garment.

50/50 - 50 percent cotton/50 percent polyester fabric; also referred to as "polycotton".

Fleece - a fabric with a pile or napped surface, sometimes of a unit construction; commonly used in sweats.

Football jersey - a jersey shirt with a slight v-neck, stitched yoke and one-half-length to three-quarter-length sleeves.

Fused lining - a lining that is fused to the two outer plies with solvent, heat and pressure. It's used to stabilize or stiffen parts of a garment, such as a pocket or collar.


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G

Garment wash - process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured to remove sizing; it also softens and pre-shrinks.

Grommet - an eyelet of firm material to strengthen or protect an opening.

Gusset - triangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.


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H

Hand - quality or characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch, e.g. softness, firmness, drapeability, fineness (i.e. its tactile qualities).

Heavyweight - fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.

Henley style - shirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.

Herringbone - a decorative pattern of rows of slanted parallel lines alternating direction row by row.

High cotton - type of cotton fabric that results in a soft hand. Therefore, it has little or no lint and a tighter knit, which makes for ideal screen printing.

High profile - determines the look of a cap. A high-profile cap's arch begins at 3 inches.

Honeycomb pique - a knit fabric that is characterized by a wider waffle-like appearance, which actually allows the wearer more comfort.


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I

Indigo dyeing - indigo dye is a substance taken from the indigo plant. There are many chemical imitation indigo dyes. Indigo dye color can only be achieved through a process of dyeing where yarn is dipped into a dye bath and is then allowed to oxidize. The number of dips determines the depth of the indigo color-the more dips, the darker the color.

Interlock - a fine-gauge knit fabric produced by interlocking or interlocking stitches on a circular knit machine. Similar to a jersey, except both front and back of fabric look identical. Interlock is a variation of rib knit construction. The fabric is extremely soft, firm and absorbent.


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J

Jacquard knit - dyed yarn knit on sophisticated equipment to produce a desired pattern and/or texture.

Jaspe pique - two color yarns create subtle tone variations on the surface of the fabric. This will allow exceptional embroidery surfaces.

Jersey - a type of fabric with a flat appearance, knit on a circular, single-knit machine; its principal distinction is that it is not a fabric with a distinct rib.


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K

Kasha-lining - a lining principally for jackets featuring cotton flannel, napped face and imitation chambray back.


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L

Lap shirt - an infant's shirt where the back panel or body parts overlap the front panel at the neckline where the set-in sleeves start.

Lisle - high-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long, combed staple.

Locker loop - a self-fabric loop sewn into the center of the back yoke seam for a functional styling detail.

Logo - an artistic interpretation of a company's sign or symbol. These figures can be copyrighted or trademarked. Permission is needed for duplication.

Low profile - determines the look of a cap. A low-profile cap's arch begins at 2 to 3 inches.


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M

Marbled - a texture that involves a body color with contrasting highlight flecks on the surface. These flecks give the garment a heather-like appearance.

Mercerization - a process that eliminates all of the small "hairs" of yarn, which adds to its luster. This yarn is then additionally run through a caustic solution, which further smoothes and adds gloss to the yarn surface by burning off additional fabric hairs.

Microfiber - very fine fibers, which give a unique appearance and soft hand. Microfiber fabrics are generally lightweight, resilient and resist wrinkling. They have a luxurious drape and the body retains its shape and resists pilling. They are also very strong and durable.

Mock turtleneck - a shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.


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N

NuBlend fleece - a three-end fleece made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester with an anti-pilling surface.


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O

One-ply yarn - one strand of thread is used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

Open-end yarn - a process that eliminates some manufacturing steps needed for ring-spun yarn. This cost-saving process is passed on to the garments produced.

Ounces per sq. yd. - a measurement of fabric weight, a weight that customers usually ask for when making a comparison to competitive brands.

Oxford - soft, somewhat porous, cotton shirting weave that creates a soft, nubby texture.


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P

Peach finish - a soft hand (feel) usually obtained by sanding the fabric lightly; it can be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.

Peruvian Pima Cotton - Peruvian Pima Cotton is often referred to as the "cashmere of cotton"- the softest, smoothest, "silkiest" fabric you can wear. Shrinkage standard for Peruvian Pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label.

PFD - prepare for dyeing. It indicates that the garment has been specifically prepared for the garment-dyeing process.

Piece dying - fabrics that are dyed solid colors after they have been woven or knitted, but before they are sewn into a garment.

Pigment dyeing - a class of dye used on cotton or poly/cotton. Neon or fluorescent colors are done with pigments. Dyers also do a distressed look using pigments. Pigments have the least degree of fastness of all the dyes, but create the brightest colors. Pigment dyes will typically stay in the pastel range unless it's neon. You cannot deepen color with a pigment.

Pima cotton - high-quality yarn made by plying yarns spun from long combed staple.

Pinpoint oxford - two fine yarns that are wrapped together for a fine and luxurious hand.

Pique - a knit fabric that is characterized by its waffle-like appearance.

Placket - the construction that forms the opening in the front of the shirt, allowing the wearer to put it on and take it off with ease.

Plain weave - simplest, most common of all basic weaves. The surface provides a smooth surface for printing.

Polar fleece - knitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. The pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. This is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.

Poplin - a medium-to-heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed.

Powder dyeing - process that allows polyester to blend with cotton to give a garment a dyed appearance. Powder dyed garments ensure consistent color, wash after wash.

PrintPro - fleece fabric construction with a two-end yarn system that allows for an increase in the amount of stitches per square yard.


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Q

Quarter turned - an additional manufacturing process where the mill rotates 1/4 of a turn to put a crease on the side of the product rather then the front of the product.


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R

Raglan - a raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck; it makes for ease of arm movement.

Ramie - a strong, staple fiber of cellulose yielded by the inner bark of the ramie plant. It's often used as a less expensive substitute for linen or cotton, and is usually blended with cotton, flax or silk.

Reactive dye - special dye used on a garment which produces, when the label's wash instructions are followed, a more set-in color tone.

Resin treatment - the addition of thermosetting resins applied in the finishing process, used to control the shrinkage of a fabric and add durable press characteristics.

Rib - a stretchy fabric normally used for trim. This stitch is formed by two sets of needles at right angles to each other. The face of the fabric appears to be the same as the backside.

Ring-spun yarn - yarn that is reproduced on ring frame equipment. This yarn produces a softer hand when knit.

Ringer tee - a shirt, usually white bodied, featuring ribbed crew neck and sleeve bands in a contrasting color.


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S

Sandwich hat - a hat where there is contrasting trim between the upper and lower part of the visor.

Scoop neck - a rounded neck, larger than a crewneck, but smaller than a boatneck.

Seamless collar - a collar that is knit in a circle and is set in circular. There are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made t-shirts.

Set-in sleeve - a style of sleeve that is sewn into the shoulder, as opposed to the neck.

Sheared - refers to the towel's finish. A sheared surface is created clipping the loops on one side of the towel. Sheared terry is often referred to as having a velour finish. The shearing process creates a plush and smooth finish, which is great for printing or embroidery. The weight of the fabric has a big impact on the overall appearance of the shear. A heavier weight fabric enhances the velour appearance because there is more material to shear.

Sheeting - a plain-weave cotton fabric usually made of carded yarns.

Side seams - seams that join the front and back together. This feature is not found on T-shirts and some placket shirts.

Single-needle - a stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway. A single-needle shoulder seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion.

Staple - the actual length of a cotton fiber.

Stonewash - a finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling. Garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers. This process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. Different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.

Sublimation transfer - method of subliming a dye pattern, through the use of heat, onto polyester fabric from a paper carrier.

Sueded fleece - a very smooth and luxurious fleece that is made with an 80/20 cotton and polyester blend; a unique finishing process wherein the fabric is gently "sanded," which causes the fleece to become very soft.


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T

Taping - a design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. The term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.

Taslan - 100% nylon fabrication with a water-resistant coating that has been woven as a twill and washed to provide a soft hand.

Tencel - a fiber made from wood pulp. Tencel gives fabric a very soft, smooth and luxurious hand.

Tubular knit - a golf shirt style with no side seams. The bottom is rounded all around.

Twill - characterized by a diagonal rib. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable, firm fabric.

Two-ply yarn - two strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.


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U

Unconstructed - an unconstructed cap has a relaxed fit without backing. It fits closely to the wearer's head.


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W

Waterproofness - the ability of fabric to withstand penetration by water. Conventional waterproof fabrics are generally coated with chemicals or laminated with a film that closes the pores in fabric. (See waterproof/breathable).

Waterproof/breathable - ability to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. There are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.

Water repellency - the ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.

Water resistant - a treatment to fabric that actually allows water to "bead" and fall off a garment.

Weather resistant - a loose term referring primarily to a fabric's wind-resistant and water-repellent properties. Water-resistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. The greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.

Welt cuffs - cuffs on short sleeve garments formed from a single ply of ribbed fabric with a finished edge. Fabric for welt cuffs is knit in a bolder stitch construction than that of standard 1 x 1 ribs.

Woven - fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other.

Wrinkle-free - the basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying. The application and curing of wrinkle-free may occur before or after the garments are produced. "Precured wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. Because the "postcure wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because the "postcure wrinkle-free" process is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.


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Y

Yoke - contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.


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